Articles & Books

Street harassment is a under-researched and written about topic, particularly as far as why men harass women, how widespread the problem is, and how it intersects with other forms of oppression, such as racism, homophobia, transphobia, classism, and able-ism. Here is a compilation of existing (primarily) scholarly articles, books, research reports, and thesis on street harassment or related topics.

Articles | Books | Reports | Thesis


Abdelmonem, Angie. “Reconceptualizing Sexual Harassment in Egypt: A Longitudinal Assessment of el-Taharrush el-Ginsy in Arabic Online Forums and Anti-Sexual Harassment Activism.” Kohl: A Journal for Body and Gender Research 1, no. 1 (Summer 2015): 23-41.

Armstrong, Lynzi. “’Who’s the Slut, Who’s the Whore?’ Street Harassment in the Workplace Among Female Sex Workers in New Zealand.” Feminist Criminology (2015)

Ayres, Melanie, Carly K Friedman and Campbell Leaper. “Individual and Situational Factors Related to Young Women’s Likelihood of Confronting Sexism in Their Everyday Lives.” Sex Roles 61 (7-8): 449-460.

Benard, Cheryl and Edith Schlaffer. “The Man in the Street: Why He Harasses.” In Feminist Frameworks, edited by Allison M. Jaggar and Paula S. Rothenberg. New York: McGraw Hill, 1984.

Bernstein, Anita. “Reciprocity, Utility, and the Law of Aggression.” Vanderbilt Law Review 54, no. 1 (2001): 0-11.

Blackstone, Amy, and Christopher Uggen and Heather McLaughlin. “Legal Consciousness and Responses to Sexual Harassment.” Law & Society Review 43, no. 3 (2009): 631-668.

Bowman, Cynthia Grant. “Street Harassment and the Informal Ghettoization of Women,” Harvard Law Review 106, no 3 (January 1993): 517-580.

Brownmiller, Susan. “Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape.” In Feminism in Our Time: The Essential Writings, World War II to the Present, edited by Mariam Schneir. New York: Vintage Books, 1994.

Buchwald, Emilie. “Raising Girls for the 21st Century.” In Transforming a Rape Culture, edited by Emilie Buchwald, Pamela R. Fletcher, and Martha Roth. Minneapolis, MN: Milkwood Editions, 1993.

Chaudoir, Stephenie and Diane M. Quinn. “Bystander Sexism in the Intergroup Context: The Impact of Cat-calls on Women’s Reactions Towards Men.” Sex Roles (2010) 62: 623-634.

Chhun, Bunkosal, “Catcalls: Protected Speech or Fighting Words?” Thomas Jefferson Law Review 33, no. 2 (Spring 2011): 273.

Chynoweth, Sarah K. and Erin M. Patrick, “Sexual violence during firewood collection: income-generation as protection in displaced settings.” In Gender-Based Violence, edited by Gerladine Terry and Joanna Hoare. Oxfam Great Britain, 2007.

Cohen, Patricia Cline. “Safety and Danger: Women on American Public Transport, 1750-1850.” In Gendered Domains: Rethinking Public and Private in Women’s History, edited by Dorothy O. Helly and Susan M. Reverby. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.

Cooper, Davina. “Being in Public: The Threat and Promise of Stranger Contact.” Law & Social Inquiry 32, no. 1 (March 2007): 203-232.

Crenshaw, Kimberle. “Race, Gender, and Sexual Harassment.” Southern California Law Review 65 (1991-1992): 1467-76.

Crouch, Margaret. “Sexual Harassment in Public Places.” Social Philosophy Today 25 (2009): 137-148.

Cumiskey, Kathleen M. “’Simply Leaving My House Would Even be Scarier’: How Mobile Phones Affect Women’s Perceptions of Safety and Experience in Public Places.” Media Asia, 37, no. 4 (2010): 205-214.

Davis, Deirdre. “The Harm that Has No Name: Street Harassment, Embodiment, and African American Women.” In Gender Struggles: Practical Approaches to Contemporary Feminism, edited by Constance L. Mui and Julien S. Murphy. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2002: 214-225.

Day, Kristen. “Constructing Masculinity and Women’s Fear in Public Space in Irvine, California.Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, Volume 8, Issue 2, 2001.

Drucker, Susan and Gary Gumpert. “Shopping Women, and Public Space.” In Voices in the Street: Explorations in Gender, Media, and Public Space. Eds Susan J. Drucker and Gary Gumpert. New Jersey: Hampton Press, Inc: 1996.

Dudas, Erica; Andrea Wilbon Hartman; and Jennifer Day-Sully. “It’s Raining Men: Gender and Street Harassment in Post-Katrina New Orleans.” In Rethinking Disaster Recovery: A Hurricane Katrina Retrospective. Ed Jeannie Haubert. London: Lexington Books, 2015: 53-70.

Duneier, Mitchell. “Talking to Women.” In Sidewalk. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2000.

Fairchild, Kimberly and Laurie A. Rudman. (2008). “Everyday Stranger Harassment and Women’s Self-Objectification.” Social Justice Research, 21 (3): 338-357.

Fairchild, Kimberly. “Context Effects on Women’s Perceptions of Stranger Harassment.” Sexuality & Culture, 14 (2010): 191-216.

Fayer, Joan. “Changes in Gender Use of Public Space in Puerto Rico.” In Voices in the Street: Explorations in Gender, Media, and Public Space. Eds Susan J. Drucker and Gary Gumpert. New Jersey: Hampton Press, Inc: 1996.

Fileborn, Bianca. (July 2013). “Conceptual understandings and prevalence of sexual harassment and street harassment.” ACSSA at the Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Filipovic, Jill. “Blogging While Female: How Internet Misogyny Parallels ‘Real-World’ Harassment.” Yale Journal of Law and Feminism 19 (2007-08): 295.

Fine, Michelle, Nick Freudenberg, Yasser Payne, Tiffany Perkins, Kersha Smith and Katya Wanzer. “’Anything Can Happen with Police Around’: Urban Youth Evaluate Strategies of Surveillance in Public Places.” Journal of Social Issues 59, no.1 (April 2003): 141-158.

Flores, Nina M. “Street Harassment: Old Issue, Ongoing Struggle, New Movement.” Progressive Planning (May 2014): 28-30.

Fogg-Davis, Hawley. “Theorizing Black Lesbians within Black Feminism: A Critique of Same-Race Street Harassment. Politics & Gender, 2 (2006): 57-76.

Golden, Stephanie. “Lady Versus Low Creature: Old Roots of Current Attitudes Toward Homeless Women.” In Women: A Feminist Perspective, Fifth Edition, edited by Jo Freeman. Ohio: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1995.

Gardner, Carol Brooks. “Safe Conduct: Women, Crime, and Self in Public Places.” Social Problems 37, no. 3 (Aug. 1990): 311-328.

Guano, Emanuela. “Respectable Ladies and Uncouth Men: The Performative Politics of Class and Gender in the Public Realm of an Italian City.” Journal of American Folklore 120 (475): 48-72.

Gumpert, Gary and Susan J. Drucker. “Public Space and Urban Life: Challenges in the Communication Landscape.” Journal of Communication 44, no. 4 (December 1994): 169-177.

Hashemianfar, SeyedAli and Zahra Golestan. “Street harassment in the Isfahan city (Iran) according to the witnesses’ viewpoint.” Jurnal UMP Social Sciences and Technology Management, 3 no. 2 (2015): 619-624.

Heben, Tiffanie. “Reshaping of the Law: Interpreting and Remedying Street Harassment.South California’s Review of Law and Women’s Studies 4 no. 1 (1994): 183– 219.

Hickey, Georgina. “Barred from the Barroom: Second Wave Feminists and Public Accommodations in U.S. Cities.” Feminist Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Fall, 2008), pp. 382-408.

Hitlan, Robert, Kimberly Schneider, & Benjamin Walsh. “Upsetting Behavior: Reactions to Personal and Bystander Sexual Harassment Experiences.” Sex Roles (2006) 55: 187-195.

Hyers, Lauri. “Resisting Prejudice Every Day: Exploring Women’s Assertive Responses to Anti-Black Racism, Anti-Semitism, Heterosexism, and Sexism.” Sex Roles 56 (2007): 1-12.

Ilahi, Nadia. “Gendered Contestations: An Analysis of Street Harassment in Cairo and its Implications for Access to Public Spaces.” Surfacing 2, no. 1 (May 2009): 56-69.

Kelly, Janice and Eric Wesselmann. “Cat-Calls and Culpability: Investigating the Frequency and Functions of Stranter Harassment.” Sex Roles 63 (2010): 451-462.

Kissling, Elizabeth Arveda. “Street harassment: the language of sexual terrorism.” Discourse & Society 2 no. 4 (1991): 451-460.

Koskela, Hille. “‘Bold walk and breakings’: Women’s spatial confidence versus fear of violence.” Gender, Place and Culture, 4 no. 3 (1997): 301–320.

Laniya, Olatokunbo Olukemi. “Street Smut: Gender, Media, and the Legal Power Dynamics of Street Harassment, or ‘Hey Sexy’ and Other Verbal Ejaculations.” Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 14 (2005): 91-130.

di Leonardo, Micaela. “Political Economy of Street Harassment.” Aegis (Summer 1981): 51-57.

Logan, Laura S. “Street Harassment: Current and Promising Avenues for Researchers and Activists.Sociology Compass Vol. 9, No. 3 (March 2015): 196-211.

Lord, Tracy Lynn. “The Relationship of Gender-Based Public Harassment to Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Avoidance Behavior.” Ph.D. Thesis at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2009.

MacKinnon, Catherine. “The Social Causes of Sexual Harassment.” In Sexual Harassment: Confrontation and Decision, edited by Edmund Wall. Buffalo New York: Prometheus Books, 1992.

Macmillan, Ross, Annette Nierobisz and Sandy Welsh. Experiencing the Streets: Harassment and Perceptions of Safety Among Women.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 37, no. 3 (August 2000): 306-322.

Nielsen, Laura Beth. “Situating Legal Consciousness: Experiences and Attitudes of Ordinary Citizens about Law and Street Harassment.” Law and Society Review 34 (2000): 1055-1090.

Packer, Jaclyn. “Sex Differences in the Perception of Street Harassment.” A Guide to Dynamics of Feminist Therapy. Ed. Doris Howard. New York: Haworth P, 1987.

Parsons, Clare Olivia. “Reputation and Public Appearance: The De-Eroticization of the Urban Street.” In Voices in the Street: Explorations in Gender, Media, and Public Space. Eds Susan J. Drucker and Gary Gumpert. New Jersey: Hampton Press, Inc: 1996.

Perry, Imani. “Let Me Holler at You: African-American Culture, Postmodern Feminism, and Revisiting the Law of Sexual Harassment.” Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law 8 (2007): 111.

Peoples, Fatima Mareah. “Street Harassment in Cairo: A Symptom of Disintegrating Social Structures.” The African Anthropologist 15, no. 1 & 2 (2008): 1-20.

Popkin, Susan, Tama Leventhal, & Gretchen Weismann. (2010) “Girls in the ’Hood: How Safety Affects the Life Chances of Low-Income Girls.” Urban Affairs Review 45 (6): 715-744.

Quinn, Beth A. “Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of ‘Girl Watching.’” Gender & Society 16, no. 3 (June 2002): 286-402.

Roberson, Amaya N. “Anti-Street Harassment.” Off Our Backs. May-June 2005.

Rosewarne, Lauren. “Visual Terror: Graffiti and Outdoor Advertising as Street Harassment.” Refereed paper presented to the Australian Political Science Association Conference.

Saltzberg, Elayne A. and Joan C. Chrisler. “Beauty Is the Beast: Psychological Effects of the Pursuit of the Perfect Female Body.” In Women: A Feminist Perspective, Fifth Edition, edited by Jo Freeman. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1995.

Sanday, Peggy Reeves. “The Socio-Cultural Context of Rape: A Cross-Cultural Study.” In Confronting Rape and Sexual Assault, edited by Mary E. Odem and Jody Clay-Warner. Lanham, MD: The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.,1998.

Saunders, Penelope and Jennifer Kirby. “Move Along: Community-Based Research into the Policing of Sex Work in Washington, D.C.” Social Justice 37, no. 1 (2011): 107-127.

Schulz, Dorothy and Susan Gilbert, “Women and Transit Security: A New Look at an Old Issue,” U.S. Department of Transportation.

Sheffield, Carole J. “Sexual Terrorism.” In Women: A Feminist Perspective, Fifth Edition, edited by Jo Freeman. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1995.

Sigler, Robert T. and Ida M. Johnson. “Public perceptions and the need for criminalization of sexual harassment.Journal of Criminal Justice 14, no. 3 (1986): 229-237.

Squires, Catherine R., Laura P. Kohn-Wood, Tabbye Chavous, and Prudence L. Carter. “Evaluating Agency and Responsibility in Gendered Violence: African American Youth Talk About Violence and Hip Hop.” Sex Roles 55 (2006): 725-737.

Thompson, Deborah. “‘The Woman in the Street:’ Reclaiming the Public Space from Sexual Harassment.” Yale Journal of Law and Feminism 6 (1994): 313 – 348.

Truluck, Emilia. “Understanding Street Harassment in Jordan: A Comparative Analysis of Syrian Refugees’ and Jordanian Citizens’ Experiences of Street Harassment in Jordanian Host Communities.” SIT Study Abroad, Spring 2015.

Tuerkheimer, Deborah. (1997) “Street Harassment as Sexual Subordination: The Phenomenology of Gender-Specific Harm.” Wisconsin Women’s Law Journal 12.

Walkowitz, Judith R. “Going Public: Shopping, Street Harassment, and Streetwalking in Late Victorian London.” Representations 62 (Spring 1998): 1-30.

Warr, Mark. “Fear of Rape among Urban Women.” Social Problems, 32, no. 3 (Feb. 1985): 238-250.

West, Robin L. “The Difference in Women’s Hedonic Lives: A Phenomenological Critique of Feminist Legal Theory.” Wisconsin Women’s Law Journal 3 (1987): 81-145.

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Bates, Laura. Everyday Sexism. London: Simon & Schuster UK, 2014.

Comstock, Gary. Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.

Drucker, Susan J. and Gary Grumpert, eds. Voices in the Street: Explorations in Gender, Media, and Public Space. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, Inc, 1996.

Freedman, Estelle. Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013.

Gardner, Carol Brooks. Passing By: Gender and Public Harassment. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995.

Huppuch, Meghan, Joanne Smith and Mandy Van Deven. Hey Shorty! A Guide to Combating Sexual Harassment and Violence in Schools and on the Streets. New York: The Feminist Press at CUNY, 2011.

Kearl, Holly. 50 Stories about Stopping Street Harassers. CreateSpace, 2013.

Kearl, Holly. Stop Global Street Harassment: Growing Activism Around the World. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Publishers, 2015.

Kearl, Holly. Stop Street Harassment: Making Public Places Safe and Welcoming for Women. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Publishers, 2010.

Khazzoom, Loowa. Consequence: Beyond Resisting Rape (2002)

Langelan, Martha. Back Off: How to Confront and Stop Sexual Harassment and Harassers New York: Fireside, 1993.

Madriz, Esther. Nothing Bad Happens to Good Girls: Fear of Crime in Women’s Lives. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1997.

McGuire, Danielle L. At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance – A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power. New York: Vintage, 2011.

Miller, Jody. Getting Played: African American Girls, Urban Inequality, and Gendered Violence. New York City: New York University Press, 2008.

Nielsen, Laura Beth. License to Harass: Law, Hierarchy, and Offensive Public Speech Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.

Paludi, Michele and Florence Denmark. Victims of Sexual Assault and Abuse. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Publishers, 2010.

Phadke, Shilpa and Sameera Khan and Shilpa Ranade. Why Loiter?: Women and Risk on Mumbai Streets. Penguin Books India, 2011.

Segrave, Kerry. Beware the Masher: Sexual Harassment in American Public Places, 1880-1930. North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2014.

Spain, Daphne. Gendered Spaces. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

Stanley, Liz and Sue Wise. Georgie Porgie: Sexual Harassment in Everyday Life. London: Pandora Press, 1987.

Tarrant, Shira, ed. Gender, Sex, and Politics: In the Streets and Between the Sheets in the 21st Century. London: Routledge, 2015.

Whitzman, Carolyn. Crystal Legacy, Caroline Andrew, Fran Klodawsky, Margaret Shaw, and Kalpana Viswanath. Building Inclusive Cities: Women’s Safety and the Right to the City. New York City, NY: Routledge, 2013.

Wilson, Elizabeth. The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1991.

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Research Reports:

ActionAid International, “Women and the city: Examining the gender impact of violence and urbanisation.” 2011.

ActionAid International, “Women and the City II: Combating Violence Against Women and Girls in Urban Public Spaces – The Role of Public Services.” 2013.

ActionAid International, “Women and the City III: A Summary of Baseline Data on Women’s Experiences of Violence in Seven Countries.” 2014.

Bargad, “Research Study, Street Harassment against Girls in District Gujranwala.” 2005.

Egyptian Center for Women’s Rights. “’Clouds in Egypt’s Sky’ Sexual Harassment: from Verbal Harassment to Rape.” July 2008.

Fileborn, Bianca. “Conceptual understandings and prevalence of sexual harassment and street harassment.” Australian Government. 2013.

Fine, Alyssa. “Roadblocks: The Street Harassment of Women and Girls in Mauritius.” Soroptimist International Ipsae (Mauritius). 2009.

HarassMap. “Towards a Safer City – Sexual Harassment in Greater Cairo: The Effectiveness of Crowdsourced Data.” (2014).

Jagori, Department of Women and Child Development/Government of NCT of Delhi, UN Women, and UN Habitat, “Building Safe and Inclusive Cities for Women: A Practical Guide.” 2011.

Kearl, Holly. “Unsafe and Harassed in Public Spaces: A National Street Harassment Report.” Stop Street Harassment, 2014.

Mineta Transportation Institute, “How to Erase Women’s Fear of Transportation Environments: Case Studies and Best Practices,” 2009.

Osmond, Jane, “Public Spaces and Gender: An everyday occurrence: women and public sexual harassment.” Coventry University and Coventry Women’s Voices, 2013.

Prime, Jeanine and Corinne A. Moss-Racusin. “Engaging Men in Gender Initiatives: What Change Agents Need To Know.” Catalyst. May 2009.

Research on Women’s Issues in Transportation. Report of a Conference, Chicago 2004.

Safe Routes to School National Partnership. “Taking Back the Streets & Sidewalks: How Safe Routes to School and Community Safety Initiatives Can Overcome Violence and Crime,” 2015.

Stringer, Scott M. “Hidden in Plain Sight: Sexual Harassment and Assault in the New York City Subway System.” July 2007.

Women in Cities International, “Tackling Gender Exclusion: Experiences from the Gender Inclusion Cities Programme,” 2012.

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Aronson, Eve. “Psst, Schatje!: Mapping and Resisting Street Harassment in Amsterdam, Online and Beyond.” Master’s Degree Thesis at Utrecht University, 2015.

Beilhart, Jacqueline F. “Gender and Generational Barriers and Technological Inducements to Communication of Public Sexual Harassment Experiences.” Master’s of Arts Thesis at Georgetown University, 2013.

Borowiak, Cheryl Malgay. “Eclipsed by the son: Unearthing the roots of masculine discourse within the landscape of women’s sexual harassment stories and the law.” Ph.D. Thesis for Michigan Technological University, 2008.

Chirciu, Simona-Maria. “Hărțuirea stradală în București. Studii de caz.” Dissertation University Bucurest, 2014.

Harrison, Jennifer. “Gender segregation on public transport in South Asia: A critical evaluation of approaches for addressing harassment against women.” MSc in Development Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London), 2012.

Ilahi, Nadia. “You gotta fight for your right(s): street harassment and its relationship to gendered violence, civil society, and gendered negotiations.” Master’s thesis at American University in Cairo, 2008.

Kearl, Holly. “Direct Action, Education, Consciousness-Raising, Activism and the Internet: Methods for Combating Street Harassment,” Master’s of Arts Thesis at The George Washington University, 2007. (five page overview of my data results)

Logan, Laura S. “Fear of violence and street harassment: accountability at the intersections.” PhD Dissertation at Kansas State University, 2013.

Long, Laurel. “Drawing the Line”: In proposal of a clear definition of sexual harassment on the street.” Senior Thesis, Goucher College, Baltimore, Maryland, 2012.

Lopez, Maria Del Mar Soria. “In Her Place: Geographies of Urban Female Labor in Spanish Culture (1880-1931).” Ph.D. Thesis at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2010.

Lord, Tracy Lynn. “The Relationship of Gender-Based Public Harassment to Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Avoidance Behavior.” Dissertation for a Doctor of Psychology degree at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2009.

McNeil, Patrick. “Street Harassment at the Intersections: The Experiences of Gay and Bisexual Men.” Master’s of Arts Thesis at The George Washington University, 2014.

Mills, Melinda. “‘Are you Talking to Me?’ Considering Black Women’s Racialized and Gendered Experiences with and Responses or Reactions to Street Harassment from Men.” Master’s of Arts Thesis at Georgia State University, 2007.

O’Neill, Jarrah. “Gender in Public Space: Policy Frameworks and the Failure to Prevent Street Harassment.” Senior thesis at Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, 2013.

Oshynko, Norma Anne. “No Safe Place: The Legal Regulation of Street Harassment.” Thesis for Masters of Law in Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia, 2002.

Pitugshatwong, Nuntiya. “Crossing boundaries: Domestic fiction and nineteenth-century women’s travel narratives.” Ph.D. Thesis at the University of Minnesota, 2008.

Redding, Molly. “Cyberfeminist Interactions: The gendered effects of first-person postings on street harassment websites.” Dissertation at the London School of Economics & Political Science. 2011.

Rojas, Clarissa A. “The Architecture of Violence in the Lives of Young Latinas.” Ph.D. Thesis at the University of California, San Francisco, 2007.

Rosewarne, Lauren. “Visual Terror: Graffiti and Outdoor Advertising as Street Harassment.” University of Melbourne.

Saffin, Lori A. “Bodies that (don’t) matter : systems of gender regulation and institutions of violence against transgender persons : a queer/critical race feminist critique.” Ph.D. Thesis at Washington State University, 2008.

Sullivan, Harmony B. “‘Hey Lady, You’re Hot!’ Emotional and Cognitive Effects of Gender-Based Street Harassment on Women.” Dissertation for a Doctor of Psychology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2011.

Tabasum, Wolayat. “Street Harassment in Kabul, Afghanistan: the Seeds for Agency.” Senior Honors Thesis at Middlebury College, 2012.

Wilson, Kellie Darice. “The Political Space of Black Women in the City: Identity, Agency, and the Flow of Social Capital in Newark, NJ.” Ph.D. Thesis at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 2007.


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