Articles & Books

Street harassment is a under-researched and written about topic, particularly as far as why men harass women, how widespread the problem is, and how it intersects with other forms of oppression, such as racism, homophobia, transphobia, classism, and able-ism. Here is a compilation of existing (primarily) scholarly articles, books, research reports, and thesis on street harassment or related topics.

Articles | Books | Reports | Thesis


1. Ayres, Melanie, Carly K Friedman and Campbell Leaper. “Individual and Situational Factors Related to Young Women’s Likelihood of Confronting Sexism in Their Everyday Lives.” Sex Roles 61 (7-8): 449-460.

2. Benard, Cheryl and Edith Schlaffer. “The Man in the Street: Why He Harasses.” In Feminist Frameworks, edited by Allison M. Jaggar and Paula S. Rothenberg. New York: McGraw Hill, 1984.

3. Bowman, Cynthia Grant. “Street Harassment and the Informal Ghettoization of Women,” Harvard Law Review 106, no 3 (January 1993): 517-580.

4. Brownmiller, Susan. “Against Our Will: Men, Women, and Rape.” In Feminism in Our Time: The Essential Writings, World War II to the Present, edited by Mariam Schneir. New York: Vintage Books, 1994.

5. Buchwald, Emilie. “Raising Girls for the 21st Century.” In Transforming a Rape Culture, edited by Emilie Buchwald, Pamela R. Fletcher, and Martha Roth. Minneapolis, MN: Milkwood Editions, 1993.

6. Chaudoir, Stephenie and Diane M. Quinn. “Bystander Sexism in the Intergroup Context: The Impact of Cat-calls on Women’s Reactions Towards Men.” Sex Roles (2010) 62: 623-634.

7. Chhun, Bunkosal, “Catcalls: Protected Speech or Fighting Words?” Thomas Jefferson Law Review 33, no. 2 (Spring 2011): 273.

8. Chynoweth, Sarah K. and Erin M. Patrick, “Sexual violence during firewood collection: income-generation as protection in displaced settings.” In Gender-Based Violence, edited by Gerladine Terry and Joanna Hoare. Oxfam Great Britain, 2007.

9. Cohen, Patricia Cline. “Safety and Danger: Women on American Public Transport, 1750-1850.” In Gendered Domains: Rethinking Public and Private in Women’s History, edited by Dorothy O. Helly and Susan M. Reverby. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.

10. Cooper, Davina. “Being in Public: The Threat and Promise of Stranger Contact.” Law & Social Inquiry 32, no. 1 (March 2007): 203-232.

11. Crenshaw, Kimberle. “Race, Gender, and Sexual Harassment.” Southern California Law Review 65 (1991-1992): 1467-76.

12. Crouch, Margaret. “Sexual Harassment in Public Places.” Social Philosophy Today 25 (2009): 137-148.

13. Davis, Deirdre. “The Harm that Has No Name: Street Harassment, Embodiment, and African American Women.” In Gender Struggles: Practical Approaches to Contemporary Feminism, edited by Constance L. Mui and Julien S. Murphy. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2002: 214-225.

14. Day, Kristen. “Constructing Masculinity and Women’s Fear in Public Space in Irvine, California.Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, Volume 8, Issue 2, 2001.

15. Drucker, Susan and Gary Gumpert. “Shopping Women, and Public Space.” In Voices in the Street: Explorations in Gender, Media, and Public Space. Eds Susan J. Drucker and Gary Gumpert. New Jersey: Hampton Press, Inc: 1996.

16. Duneier, Mitchell. “Talking to Women.” In Sidewalk. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2000.

17. Fairchild, Kimberly and Laurie A. Rudman. (2008). “Everyday Stranger Harassment and Women’s Self-Objectification.” Social Justice Research, 21 (3): 338-357.

18 Fairchild, Kimberly. “Context Effects on Women’s Perceptions of Stranger Harassment.” Sexuality & Culture, 14 (2010): 191-216.

19. Fayer, Joan. “Changes in Gender Use of Public Space in Puerto Rico.” In Voices in the Street: Explorations in Gender, Media, and Public Space. Eds Susan J. Drucker and Gary Gumpert. New Jersey: Hampton Press, Inc: 1996.

20. Fileborn, Bianca. (July 2013). “Conceptual understandings and prevalence of sexual harassment and street harassment.” ACSSA at the Australian Institute of Family Studies.

21. Filipovic, Jill. “Blogging While Female: How Internet Misogyny Parallels ‘Real-World’ Harassment.” Yale Journal of Law and Feminism 19 (2007-08): 295.

22. Fine, Michelle, Nick Freudenberg, Yasser Payne, Tiffany Perkins, Kersha Smith and Katya Wanzer. “’Anything Can Happen with Police Around’: Urban Youth Evaluate Strategies of Surveillance in Public Places.” Journal of Social Issues 59, no.1 (April 2003): 141-158.

23. Fogg-Davis, Hawley. “Theorizing Black Lesbians within Black Feminism: A Critique of Same-Race Street Harassment. Politics & Gender, 2 (2006): 57-76.

24. Golden, Stephanie. “Lady Versus Low Creature: Old Roots of Current Attitudes Toward Homeless Women.” In Women: A Feminist Perspective, Fifth Edition, edited by Jo Freeman. Ohio: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1995.

25. Gardner, Carol Brooks. “Safe Conduct: Women, Crime, and Self in Public Places.” Social Problems 37, no. 3 (Aug. 1990): 311-328.

26. Guano, Emanuela. “Respectable Ladies and Uncouth Men: The Performative Politics of Class and Gender in the Public Realm of an Italian City.” Journal of American Folklore 120 (475): 48-72.

27. Gumpert, Gary and Susan J. Drucker. “Public Space and Urban Life: Challenges in the Communication Landscape.” Journal of Communication 44, no. 4 (December 1994): 169-177.

28. Heben, Tiffanie. “Reshaping of the Law: Interpreting and Remedying Street Harassment.South California’s Review of Law and Women’s Studies 4, no. 1 (1994): 183– 219.

29. Hickey, Georgina. “Barred from the Barroom: Second Wave Feminists and Public Accommodations in U.S. Cities.” Feminist Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Fall, 2008), pp. 382-408.

30. Hitlan, Robert, Kimberly Schneider, & Benjamin Walsh. “Upsetting Behavior: Reactions to Personal and Bystander Sexual Harassment Experiences.” Sex Roles (2006) 55: 187-195.

31. Hyers, Lauri. “Resisting Prejudice Every Day: Exploring Women’s Assertive Responses to Anti-Black Racism, Anti-Semitism, Heterosexism, and Sexism.” Sex Roles (2007) 56: 1-12.

32. Ilahi, Nadia. “Gendered Contestations: An Analysis of Street Harassment in Cairo and its Implications for Access to Public Spaces.” Surfacing 2 (1): 56-69. (May 2009).

33. Kelly, Janice and Eric Wesselmann. “Cat-Calls and Culpability: Investigating the Frequency and Functions of Stranter Harassment.” Sex Roles (2010) 63: 451-462.

34. Kissling, Elizabeth Arveda. “Street harassment: the language of sexual terrorism.” Discourse & Society 2 no. 4 (1991): 451-460.

25. Koskela, Hille. “‘Bold walk and breakings’: Women’s spatial confidence versus fear of violence.” Gender, Place and Culture, 4 no. 3 (1997): 301–320.

36. Laniya, Olatokunbo Olukemi. “Street Smut: Gender, Media, and the Legal Power Dynamics of Street Harassment, or ‘Hey Sexy’ and Other Verbal Ejaculations.” Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 14 (2005): 91-130.

37. di Leonardo, Micaela. “Political Economy of Street Harassment.” Aegis (Summer 1981): 51-57.

38. Lord, Tracy Lynn. “The Relationship of Gender-Based Public Harassment to Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Avoidance Behavior.” Ph.D. Thesis at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2009.

39. MacKinnon, Catherine. “The Social Causes of Sexual Harassment.” In Sexual Harassment: Confrontation and Decision, edited by Edmund Wall. Buffalo New York: Prometheus Books, 1992.

40. Macmillan, Ross, Annette Nierobisz and Sandy Welsh. Experiencing the Streets: Harassment and Perceptions of Safety Among Women.”Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 37, no. 3 (August 2000): 306-322.

41. Packer, Jaclyn. “Sex Differences in the Perception of Street Harassment.” A Guide to Dynamics of Feminist Therapy. Ed. Doris Howard. New York: Haworth P, 1987.

42. Parsons, Clare Olivia. “Reputation and Public Appearance: The De-Eroticization of the Urban Street.” In Voices in the Street: Explorations in Gender, Media, and Public Space. Eds Susan J. Drucker and Gary Gumpert. New Jersey: Hampton Press, Inc: 1996.

43. Perry, Imani. “Let Me Holler at You: African-American Culture, Postmodern Feminism, and Revisiting the Law of Sexual Harassment.” Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law 8 (2007): 111.

44. Peoples, Fatima Mareah. “Street Harassment in Cairo: A Symptom of Disintegrating Social Structures.” The African Anthropologist 15, no. 1 & 2 (2008): 1-20.

45. Popkin, Susan, Tama Leventhal, & Gretchen Weismann. (2010) “Girls in the ’Hood: How Safety Affects the Life Chances of Low-Income Girls.” Urban Affairs Review 45 (6): 715-744.

46. Quinn, Beth A. “Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of ‘Girl Watching.’” Gender & Society 16, no. 3 (June 2002): 286-402.

47. Roberson, Amaya N. “Anti-Street Harassment.” Off Our Backs. May-June 2005.

48. Rosewarne, Lauren. “Visual Terror: Graffiti and Outdoor Advertising as Street Harassment.” Refereed paper presented to the Australian Political Science Association Conference.

49. Saltzberg, Elayne A. and Joan C. Chrisler. “Beauty Is the Beast: Psychological Effects of the Pursuit of the Perfect Female Body.” In Women: A Feminist Perspective, Fifth Edition, edited by Jo Freeman. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1995.

50 Sanday, Peggy Reeves. “The Socio-Cultural Context of Rape: A Cross-Cultural Study.” In Confronting Rape and Sexual Assault, edited by Mary E. Odem and Jody Clay-Warner. Lanham, MD: The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc.,1998.

51. Schulz, Dorothy and Susan Gilbert, “Women and Transit Security: A New Look at an Old Issue,” U.S. Department of Transportation.

52. Sheffield, Carole J. “Sexual Terrorism.” In Women: A Feminist Perspective, Fifth Edition, edited by Jo Freeman. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1995.

53. Sigler, Robert T. and Ida M. Johnson. “Public perceptions and the need for criminalization of sexual harassment.Journal of Criminal Justice 14, no. 3 (1986): 229-237.

54. Thompson, Deborah. “‘The Woman in the Street:’ Reclaiming the Public Space from Sexual Harassment.” Yale Journal of Law and Feminism 6 (1994): 313 – 348.

55. Tuerkheimer, Deborah. (1997) “Street Harassment as Sexual Subordination: The Phenomenology of Gender-Specific Harm.” Wisconsin Women’s Law Journal 12.

56. Walkowitz, Judith R. “Going Public: Shopping, Street Harassment, and Streetwalking in Late Victorian London.” Representations 62 (Spring 1998): 1-30.

57. Warr, Mark. “Fear of Rape among Urban Women.” Social Problems, 32, no. 3 (Feb. 1985): 238-250.

58. West, Robin L. “The Difference in Women’s Hedonic Lives: A Phenomenological Critique of Feminist Legal Theory.” Wisconsin Women’s Law Journal 3 (1987): 81-145.


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1. Comstock, Gary. Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.

2. Gardner, Carol Brooks. Passing By: Gender and Public Harassment. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995.

3. Girls for Gender Equity (GGE), Joanne Smith, Meghan Huppuch & Mandy Van Deven. Hey Shorty! A Guide to Combating Sexual Harassment and Violence in Schools and on the Streets. New York: Feminist Press, 2011.

4. Kearl, Holly. Stop Street Harassment: Making Public Places Safe and Welcoming for Women. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Publishers, 2010.

5. Khazzoom, Loowa. Consequence: Beyond Resisting Rape (2002)

6. Langelan, Martha. Back Off: How to Confront and Stop Sexual Harassment and Harassers New York: Fireside, 1993.

7. Madriz, Esther. Nothing Bad Happens to Good Girls: Fear of Crime in Women’s Lives. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1997.

8. Miller, Jody. Getting Played: African American Girls, Urban Inequality, and Gendered Violence. New York City: New York University Press, 2008.

9. Nielsen, Laura Beth. License to Harass: Law, Hierarchy, and Offensive Public Speech Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.

10. Paludi, Michele and Florence Denmark. Victims of Sexual Assault and Abuse. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Publishers, 2010.

11. Phadke, Shilpa and Sameera Khan and Shilpa Ranade. Why Loiter?: Women and Risk on Mumbai Streets. Penguin Books India, 2011.

12. Spain, Daphne. Gendered Spaces. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

13. Stanley, Liz and Sue Wise. Georgie Porgie: Sexual Harassment in Everyday Life. London: Pandora Press, 1987.

14. Whitzman, Carolyn. Crystal Legacy, Caroline Andrew, Fran Klodawsky, Margaret Shaw, and Kalpana Viswanath. Building Inclusive Cities: Women’s Safety and the Right to the City. New York City, NY: Routledge, 2013.

15. Wilson, Elizabeth. The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1991.


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Research Reports:
1. ActionAid International, “Women and the City II: Combating Violence Against Women and Girls in Urban Public Spaces – The Role of Public Services” (2013).

2. Bargad, “Research Study, Street Harassment against Girls in District Gujranwala” (2005).

3. Egyptian Center for Women’s Rights. “’Clouds in Egypt’s Sky’ Sexual Harassment: from Verbal Harassment to Rape.” July 2008.

4. Fine, Alyssa. “Roadblocks: The Street Harassment of Women and Girls in Mauritius.” Soroptimist International Ipsae (Mauritius): 2009.

5. Jagori, Department of Women and Child Development/Government of NCT of Delhi, UN Women, and UN Habitat, “Building Safe and Inclusive Cities for Women: A Practical Guide.” 2011.

6. Mineta Transportation Institute, “How to Erase Women’s Fear of Transportation Environments: Case Studies and Best Practices,” 2009.

7. Osmond, Jane, “Public Spaces and Gender: An everyday occurrence: women and public sexual harassment.” Coventry University and Coventry Women’s Voices, 2013.

8. Prime, Jeanine and Corinne A. Moss-Racusin. “Engaging Men in Gender Initiatives: What Change Agents Need To Know.” Catalyst. May 2009.

9. Research on Women’s Issues in Transportation. Report of a Conference, Chicago 2004.

10. Stringer, Scott M. “Hidden in Plain Sight: Sexual Harassment and Assault in the New York City Subway System.” July 2007.

11. Taylor, Alice. “Women and the city: Examining the gender impact of violence and urbanisation.” ActionAid. November 2011.

12. Women in Cities International, “Tackling Gender Exclusion: Experiences from the Gender Inclusion Cities Programme,” 2012.

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1. Harrison, Jennifer. “Gender segregation on public transport in South Asia: A critical evaluation of approaches for addressing harassment against women.” MSc in Development Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies (University of London), 2012.

2. Ilahi, Nadia. “You gotta fight for your right(s): street harassment and its relationship to gendered violence, civil society, and gendered negotiations.” Master’s thesis at American University in Cairo, 2008.

3. Kearl, Holly. “Direct Action, Education, Consciousness-Raising, Activism and the Internet: Methods for Combating Street Harassment,” Master’s of Arts Thesis at The George Washington University, 2007. (five page overview of my data results)

43. Logan, Laura S. “Fear of violence and street harassment: accountability at the intersections.” PhD Dissertation at Kansas State University, 2013.

5. Long, Laurel. “Drawing the Line”: In proposal of a clear definition of sexual harassment on the street.” Senior Thesis, Goucher College, Baltimore, Maryland, 2012.

6. Lord, Tracy Lynn. “The Relationship of Gender-Based Public Harassment to Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Avoidance Behavior.” Dissertation for a Doctor of Psychology degree at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2009.

7. Mills, Melinda. “‘Are you Talking to Me?’ Considering Black Women’s Racialized and Gendered Experiences with and Responses or Reactions to Street Harassment from Men.” Master’s of Arts Thesis at Georgia State University, 2007.

8. O’Neill, Jarrah. “Gender in Public Space: Policy Frameworks and the Failure to Prevent Street Harassment.” Senior thesis at Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, 2013.

9. Oshynko, Norma Anne. “No Safe Place: The Legal Regulation of Street Harassment.” Thesis for Masters of Law in Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia, 2002.

10. Redding, Molly. “Cyberfeminist Interactions: The gendered effects of first-person postings on street harassment websites.” Dissertation at the London School of Economics & Political Science. 2011.

11. Rosewarne, Lauren. “Visual Terror: Graffiti and Outdoor Advertising as Street Harassment.” University of Melbourne.

12. Saffin, Lori A. “Bodies that (don’t) matter : systems of gender regulation and institutions of violence against transgender persons : a queer/critical race feminist critique.” Ph.D. Thesis at Washington State University, 2008.

13. Sullivan, Harmony B. “‘Hey Lady, You’re Hot!’ Emotional and Cognitive Effects of Gender-Based Street Harassment on Women.” Dissertation for a Doctor of Psychology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 2011.

14. Tabasum, Wolayat. “Street Harassment in Kabul, Afghanistan: the Seeds for Agency.” Senior Honors Thesis at Middlebury College, 2012.

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